Evolution of the prevalence of pfcrt76T isolates after the CQ ban in different African regions. Observed and fitted (by logistic regression) prevalence of pfcrt76 mutant isolates and 95% Confidence Interval, from travellers returning to France from A) Senegal, B) Mali C) Ivory Coast, and D) Cameroon, from 2004 to 2011, after that most African countries officially banned the use of CQ. The slopes and their standard error are displayed for each country. Each spot represents the number of isolates per year for travellers’ data and per study for field studies. The size of the spot is proportional to the number of isolates. The p-value indicates whether the slope of the predicted line is significantly different from zero (data from CNRpalu, France). These data are compared with two field studies E) in Malawi and F) Kenya after the CQ ban (1993 for Malawi and 1999 for Kenya) [14, 16].