Skip to main content

Table 1 The burden of vector-borne diseases endemic in South Sudan

From: Integrated vector management: a critical strategy for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan

Disease Causative agent Vector Distribution Burden Intervention References
Malaria Plasmodium falciparum P. vivax Anopheles gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. funestus Countrywide 1.2 million cases in 2012 ITNs, IRS [25]
Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) Trypanosoma brucei gambiense T. b. rhodesiense Glossina fuscipes G. tachinoides, G. pallidipes, G. morsitans Greater Equatoria Region, Jonglei state (Akobo County) 1-2 million people at risk Introduce and maintain vector control (tsetse traps) [26, 27]
Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) Leishmania donovani Phlebotomus orientalis P. martini Unity, Jonglei, UN and EE Cyclic (500 – 9,000 cases/year) LLINs in highly endemic communities [12, 28]
Lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) Wuchereria bancrofti Anopheles gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. funestus Mapping not completed, but probably all ten states Unknown Large-scale distribution of LLINs for vector control [28]
Loiasis Loa loa Chrysops silacea and C. dimidiata Equatoria region; predominantly WE Unknown Large-scale distribution of LLINs for vector control [12]
Onchocerciasis (River blindness) Onchocerca volvulus Simulium damnosum Hyperendemic in WBEG, NBEG, Warrap, Lakes, WE, CE and parts of EE; Parts of Unity; Jonglei and UN 4.1 million at risk Larvicides [12, 28]
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm) Dracunculus medinensis Chrysops All states except WE and Unity 3,618 cases in 2008, by June 2009, 1,188 cases reported Water filtration and treatment of water sources [28, 29]
Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) Schistosoma haematobium S. mansoni S. haematobium S. mansoni Probably Warrab, Lakes, Unity and UN Unknown Molluscicides [12, 28]
  1. Abbreviation of States: BN, Blue Nile, CE, Central Equatoria, EE, Eastern Equatoria, NBEG, North Bahr el Ghazal, UN, Upper Nile, WBEG, Western Bahr el Ghazal, WE, Western Equatoria.