Diagnostic value of Ace-1 alleles (A) and genotypes (B) for detection of resistance in An. gambiae s.s. (gam) and An. coluzzii (col). (A) Bars show estimates of sensitivity (blue) and specificity (red) with 95% confidence limits. (B) Bars show positive predictive values for genotypes possessing resistance-associated alleles and negative predictive values for those possessing only wild type alleles; each with 95% confidence intervals.