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Table 3 Impact of IRS and LLIN on the prevalence of malaria by age group in Zambia, 2006 to 2011

From: The changing burden of malaria and association with vector control interventions in Zambia using district-level surveillance data, 2006–2011

  Malaria prevalence Severe malaria Death
  <5 years ≥5 years <5 years ≥5 years <5 years ≥5 years
  PRR* (95% CI) PRR (95% CI) PRR (95% CI) PRR (95% CI) PRR (95% CI) PRR (95% CI)
IRS (per 1,000 household coverage)
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
<500 1.13 (1.13–1.14) 1.27(1.26–1.27) 1.28 (1.26–1.29) 1.33 (1.32–1.35) 1.28 (1.21–1.36) 0.96 (0.90–1.03)
≥500 1.36 (1.35–1.36) 1.57(1.57–1.58) 1.38(1.36–1.39) 1.58 (1.56–1.60) 1.72 (1.60–1.84) 1.24 (1.14–1.34)
LLIN (per two household residents coverage)
<1 1 1 1 1 1 1
≥1 0.84 (0.84–0.85) 0.93 (0.93–0.94) 0.85 (0.84–0.85) 0.92 (0.91–0.93) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 0.90 (0.84–0.96)
Year       
2006 1 1 1 1 1 1
2007 0.88 (0.88–0.89) 0.91 (0.90–0.91) 0.87 (0.87–0.88) 0.86 (0.86–0.87) 1.09 (1.04–1.15) 0.76 (0.72–0.80)
2008 0.61 (0.61–0.62) 0.62 (0.62–0.63) 0.55 (0.55–0.56) 0.63 (0.62–0.64) 0.49 (0.46–0.52) 0.59 (0.55–0.63)
2009 0.65 (0.65–0.66) 0.55 (0.55–0.56) 0.68 (0.67–0.69) 0.62 (0.62–0.63) 0.66 (0.61–0.70) 0.59 (0.55–0.63)
2010 0.69 (0.68–0.69) 0.79 (0.78–0.79) 0.67 (0.66–0.68) 0.76 (0.75–0.77) 0.56 (0.52–0.61) 0.69 (0.65–0.75)
2011 0.67 (0.67–0.68) 0.75 (0.75–0.76) 0.53 (0.53–0.54) 0.63 (0.62–0.64) 0.47 (0.43–0.50) 0.55 (0.51–0.60)
  1. * PRR = Prevalence rate ratio.