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Table 1 Chronology of key milestones for malaria control in Botswana

From: Malaria control in Botswana, 2008–2012: the path towards elimination

Year Key milestones
1950 Malaria control activities in Botswana started in 1950s with a programme that focused mainly on vector control using IRS with DDT
1974 A comprehensive programme was initiated with emphasis on a number of components (vector control, case management and health education)
1996 Malaria vector control through IRS as a vertical programme was decentralized from central government to district level under the primary health care approach
1996 Weekly notification of malaria cases introduced with indicators of confirmed, unconfirmed and malaria deaths being reported
1997 NMP Botswana introduced the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) as a complementary strategy to IRS.
1998 Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine introduced as first-line treatment following evidence of resistance to chloroquine between 1994 and 1997
2003 IDSR strategy introduced incorporating malaria indicators
2007 NMP introduced ACT adopting artemether-lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria and RDT for malaria diagnosis in all districts
2009 In line with the move to malaria elimination, a policy change required all cases to be tested before treatment
Re-introduction of DDT for IRS and switch to use of ITNs to LLINs as strategy to achieve elimination
Following a comprehensive NMP review, Botswana adopted move towards malaria elimination, and the target was set for 2015
2010 Malaria policy developed to guide implementation of malaria interventions. Malaria Strategic Plan 2010 –15 using recommendations from programme review of 2009.
Mass free distribution of LLINs adopted
2012 Case-based surveillance introduced