Malaria infection was not correlated with an increase in the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-10 and IL-2 in mitogen-activated T-cell populations. PBMCs were stimulated for 4 h with PMA and ionomycin. Cells were washed and stained for cell surface expression of γδTCR, CD3 and CD4 and were intracellular stained for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10 or TNF. Appropriate isotype controls were included to define parameter gates. PBMCs were gated on the lymphocyte population and the percentage of positive cells for each group (low (<1,000; n = 51), medium (1,000-10,000; n = 65) and high (>10,000; n = 22) mean parasite density (per μl of blood) were also compared to uninfected endemic controls (EC).