Ascaris lumbricoides infection did not alter IFN-γ, TNF, IL-10 and IL-2 expression in mitogen-activated T-cell populations. PBMCs were stimulated for 4 h with PMA and ionomycin. Cells were washed and stained for cell surface expression of γδTCR, CD3 and CD4 and were intracellular stained for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10 or TNF-a. Appropriate isotype controls were included to define parameter gates. PBMCs were gated on the lymphocyte population and the percentage of positive cells for each group Ascaris infection only (ASC), Malaria infection only (MAL) and co-infected (ASC + MAL) was determined by flow cytometry and compared to uninfected endemic controls (EC) and MAL group was compared to the (ASC + MAL).