The percentage of CD4+(A) and CD8+(B) T cells in the brain of C57BL/6 mice, which were co-infected with 100 or 200 S. japonicum cercariae and 1 × 106or 1 × 105P. berghei pRBCs eight weeks later. Intensities of S. japonicum cercariae in each panel are indicated as co-infection-200c and co-infection-100c, respectively. Mice infected with only P. berghei are indicated as P. berghei-mono. Mice were dissected on days 6 post-P. berghei infection to obtain the respective cell counts. In addition, BBB damage was evaluated by the blue discoloration of the Evans blue stained brain tissues. Representative examples for P. berghei-mono-infection, co-infection-100c, co-infection-200c, and normal controls are shown in panel (C). Quantification of Evans blue extravasation in formamide was measured as absorbance at 620 nm (D). Bars represent the mean values ± SD. One-way ANOVA was performed to compare values between indicated groups with *indicating P < 0.05 and #indicating P < 0.01. n = 5–6 mice per group. FACS plots were used to show the cell populations and the gating strategy.