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Table 1 Association of symptoms of illness with RDT positivity, age and seasonality iii iv

From: Monitoring, characterization and control of chronic, symptomatic malaria infections in rural Zambia through monthly household visits by paid community health workers

Symptom Passive surveillance Active surveillance
  OR [95% CI]c Pd OR [95% CI]c Pd
Fever 5.98[5.79,6.16] <0.001 14.63[14.55,14.71] <0.001
History of fever 2.16[1.93,2.40] <0.001 2.86[2.77,2.95] <0.001
Headache 2.31[2.15,2.47] <0.001 6.83[6.77,6.90] <0.001
Cough 0.74[0.58,0.90] <0.001 1.85[1.77,1.93] <0.001
Diarrhoea 1.47[1.15,1.79] 0.017 2.04[1.86,2.21] <0.001
Vomiting 3.01[2.74,3.27] <0.001 6.61[6.43,6.80] <0.001
Chest pain 0.88[0.56,1.20] 0.447 1.47[1.31,1.64] <0.001
Breathing problems 1.78[−8.61,12.16] 0.914 7.99[6.47,9.52] 0.008
Other symptoms 0.87[0.46,1.28] 0.510 0.98[0.81,1.15] 0.809
  1. iiic – odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals, d – p-value.
  2. ivThe association of clinical symptoms with malaria infection as determined by RDT positivity was determined by logistic regression with GLMMs controlling for age and seasonality as fixed effects and for date, individual nested in CHW and CHW nested in cluster location as random effects.