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Table 5 Sensitivity and specificity of combinations of symptoms for different clinical malaria definitions in individuals ≥5 years of age

From: Sensitivity of fever for diagnosis of clinical malaria in a Kenyan area of unstable, low malaria transmission

A. Symptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia
Predictors Rule Sensitivity Specificity
F Fever 55. 2 54. 4
C, F, M, H, V, ~D Any of F, C, ~D, V, H 100. 0 2. 4
C, F, M, ~D Any of F, C, ~D 98. 5 5. 6
F, ~D Either of F, ~D 98. 5 6. 6
~D ~D 96. 9 12. 5
C, F, M, ~D ≥ 2 of C, F, M, ~D 73. 7 43. 5
F, H F or H 96. 8 11. 5
B. Symptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia plus T ≥ 37.5°C
Predictors Rule Sensitivity Specificity
F Fever 64. 7 54. 5
C, F, M, H, V, ~D Any of C, F, M, H, V, ~D 100. 0 2. 1
C, F, M, ~D Any of C, F, M, ~D 98. 3 4. 9
F, ~D F,~D 98. 3 6. 5
~D ~D 96. 6 12. 2
C, F, M, ~D ≥ 2 of C, F, M, ~D 82. 8 40. 9
F, H F or H 96. 6 7. 6
C. Symptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia ≥1,000 parasites/μL plus T ≥ 37.5°C
Predictors Rule Sensitivity Specificity
F Fever 69. 6 58. 4
F, H F or H 100. 0 23. 0
D. Symptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia ≥4,000 parasites/μL plus T ≥ 37.5°C
Predictors Rule Sensitivity Specificity
F Fever 64. 8 54. 2
C, F, M, V, ~D, H Any of C, F, M, V, ~D, H 100. 0 2. 0
C, F, M, V, ~D Any of C, F, M, V, ~D 97. 7 4. 8
~D ~D 95. 5 12. 1
C, F, M, V Any of C, F, M, V 84. 1 34. 8
F, H F or H 100. 0 22. 9
  1. Abbreviations: F fever, C chills, H headache, M Malaise, V vomiting, ~D No diarrhoea.