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Table 1 Influence of maternal parasitemia on malaria in infants

From: Pregnancy-associated malaria and malaria in infants: an old problem with present consequences

Cohort Study design and simple size Time period Transmission setting Malaria prevention strategy during pregnancy Treatment drug regime Proportion of maternal peripheral parasitemia at delivery Proportion of placental parasitemia Proportion of neonatal parasitemia Infant follow-up period Median time to first parasitemia (days, min, max) Association of infant malaria with PAM Early infant parasitemia <3 months
Mangochi [21] (Malawi) Clinical trial on comparative efficacy of CQ or MQ; infant cohort follow-up (1766 women at delivery and 1289 infants) 1988-1990 Perennial with seasonal peaks CQ and MQ CQ CQ: 20.3% MQ: 4.1% CQ: 25.1% MQ: 6.2% CQ: 8.6% MQ: 3.1% 12 months 199 (192-207) at 3 months: 1.1 (0.7-1.9) 18.5%
Ebolowa [13] (Cameroon) Infant cohort follow-up (197) 1993-1995 Perennial with seasonal peaks CQ CQ   22.84% (Primigravid: 69%; Multigravid: 31%)   24 months PM+: 217; PM-:350 at 6 months: PM+: 36%; PM-: 14%, p<0.05 at 2 years: PM+: 46.5%; PM-: 38.5%, p=0.6 ≈12%
Muheza [14] (Tanzania) Infant cohort follow-up (453) 2002-2004 Perennial with seasonal peaks (400 infective mosquito bites each year) SP (area with 68% resistance 14-day treatment failure rate)    15.2% (Primigravid≤2: 24%; Multigravid>2: 5.6%)   12 months 266 (238–294) PM-:273 (245-322) PM+: 244 (147-266); Primigravidae: PM+:AOR= 0.21, (0.09–0.47) PM-: Reference*** Multigravidae: PM+: AOR =1.59, (1.16–2.17) PM-:AOR=0.67, (0.50–0.91) PM+ ≈20%; PM-≈10%
Lambarené [15] (Gabon) Infant cohort follow-up (527) 2002-2004 Perennial No   10.5%* 9.48%   30 months Primigravidae: PM+:107 (83-139) PM-:102 (29-205) Multigravidae: PM+:111 (13-189) PM-:92 (27-208) PM+:AOR= 2.1, (1.2–3) PM-: Reference** PM+ ≈2%; PM-≈0%
Manhiça [22] (Mozambique) Clinical trial on the efficacy of SP compared to placebo; infant cohort follow-up (1030 women at delivery and 997 infants) 2003-2005 Perennial with seasonal peaks ITNs vs ITNs+SP SP-AQ ITNs+ placebo:15.15% ITNs+SP: 7.1% ITNs+ placebo:52.27% ITNs+SP: 52.11% ITNs+ placebo:1.15% ITNs+SP: 0.92% 12 months   Clinical PAM: AOR=1.96 (1.13–3.41) Acute PM: AOR= 4.63 (2.1-10.24) Chronic PM: AOR=3.95 (2.07-7.55) PM-: Reference  
Tori Bossito [17, 23] (Benin) Infant cohort follow-up (550) 2007-2008 Perennial with seasonal peaks (400 infective mosquito bites each year) SP AL   11% 0.83% 12 months PM+: 34 (4-83); PM-: 43 (4-85) ITN:AOR=2.13 (1.24–3.67) No ITN: AOR=1.18 (0.60–2.33) 20.3%
Mono [24] (Benin) Mother and infant cohort follow-up (218) 2008-2010 Mesoendemic (1-35 bites/person/year) SP Quinine or SP   3.67%   12 months PAM+: 362 (18-390) PAM-: 365 (64-449) PAM during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy: AOR= 4.6 (1.7; 12.5) PAM during the 1st and 2nd trimesters non significant  
  1. PM: Placental malaria, PAM: Pregnancy associated malaria and AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio.
  2. *data from a reference article.
  3. **the association between placental malaria and malaria in the child was only statistically significant for children who were randomized to receive the sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine intervention (AHR=3 (1.5-6)).
  4. ***Analysis of the effect of IPTp on parasitemia of the offspring was performed for 882 women of this cohort. Among them, 21.6% received no IPTp, 42% one dose, and 36.4% two or more doses.