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Table 1 Factors associated with mortality in complicated malaria (N = 226)

From: Determinants of mortality, intensive care requirement and prolonged hospitalization in malaria – a tertiary care hospital based cohort study from South-Western India

Risk factors Risk factors, % (event/226) Mortality per risk factor, % (death/no. of event) Odds ratio [95% confidence interval]* P - value*
Species of infection $
Plasmodium vivax 43.8 (99) 2 (2/99) Reference  
Plasmodium falciparum 50.9 (115) 6.1 (7/115) 3.14 [0.64 - 15.50] 0.20
Age
Up to 40 years 58 (131) 4.6 (6/131) Reference  
Between 41–60 years 35 (79) 6.3 (5/79) 1.41 [0.42 - 4.77] 0.58
More than 60 years 7 (16) 0 0 0.99
Gender
Female 22.6 (51) 3.9 (2/51) Reference  
Male 77.4 (175) 5.1 (9/175) 0.75 [0.16 - 3.60] 0.72
Determinants of severity
Cerebral malaria 11.1 (25) 16 (4/25) 5.28 [1.43 - 19.53] 0.01
Spontaneous bleeding 31.4 (71) 7 (5/71) 1.88 [0.55 - 6.38] 0.31
Pulmonary oedema/ARDS 28.3 (64) 10.9 (7/64) 4.85 [1.37 - 17.19] 0.01
Liver dysfunction 20.8 (47) 12.8 (6/47) 5.09 [1.48 - 17.50] 0.01
Severe anaemia 15 (34) 14.7 (5/34) 5.35 [1.53 - 18.65] 0.01
Haemoglobinuria 11.1 (25) 8 (2/25) 1.85 [0.38 - 9.07] 0.45
Renal failure 21.2 (48) 14.6 (7/48) 7.43 [2.08 - 26.57] 0.002
Respiratory distress 17.7 (40) 12.5 (5/40) 4.29 [1.24 - 14.82] 0.02
Metabolic acidosis 5.8 (13) 23.1 (3/13) 7.69 [1.77 - 33.47] 0.01
Hyperparasitaemia 4.4 (10) 10 (1/10) 2.29 [0.26 - 19.87] 0.45
Hypoglycaemia 0.9 (2) 100 (2/2) # #
Shock 4.9 (11) 0 # #
Other abnormal lab parameters
Leucocytosis (≥11,000/mm3) 15 (34) 17.6 (6/34) 9.38 [2.49 - 35.33] 0.001
Leucopaenia (≤4,000/mm3) 11.5 (26) 3.8 (1/26) 0.79 [0.10 - 6.51] 0.83
Severe thrombocytopaenia (≤40,000/mm3) 38.1 (86) 8.1 (7/86) 2.73 [0.77 -9.61] 0.12
Supportive requirements
Inotropes 8 (18) 38.9 (7/18) 32.46 [8.25 - 127.73] <0.001
Blood transfusion 36.7 (83) 7.2 (6/83) 2.15 [0.64 - 7.28] 0.22
Mechanical ventilation 12.4 (28) 32.1 (9/28) 46.42 [9.35 - 230.60] <0.001
Dialysis 10.2 (23) 17.4 (4/23) 5.90 [1.58 - 21.97] 0.01
Intensive care 30.1 (68) 14.7 (10/68) 27.07 [3.39 - 216.15] 0.002
Length of hospital stay
More than 7 days of hospital stay 44.7 (101) 1 (1/101) 0.11 [0.01 - 0.91] 0.04
  1. *Confidence intervals that do not overlap the null value of odds ratio = 1, and P-value <0.05 are shown in bold font.
  2. #Statistics could not be computed.
  3. $Mixed infection was excluded due to insufficient cohort size.