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Table 3 Factors associated with intensive care support^ (Malaria cohort = 922)

From: Determinants of mortality, intensive care requirement and prolonged hospitalization in malaria – a tertiary care hospital based cohort study from South-Western India

Risk factors Intensive care support % (event/total number) Odds ratio [95% confidence interval]* P – value* Adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]* P – value*
Species of infection $
Plasmodium vivax 4.3 (25/585) Reference    
Plasmodium falciparum 15.1 (48/317) 4.00 [2.41 - 6.62] <0.001   
Age
Up to 40 years 6.2 (39/626) Reference    
Between 41–60 years 12.9 (32/248) 2.23 [1.36 - 3.65] 0.001   
More than 60 years 16.7 (8/48) 3.01 [1.32 - 6.87] 0.01   
Gender
Male 7.8 (59/760) 1.67 [0.98 - 2.87] 0.06   
Female 12.3 (20/162) Reference    
More than 3 days of fever 11.1 (71/638) 5.55 [2.38 - 12.94] <0.001 5.87 [1.56 - 22.10] 0.01
Determinants of severity
Cerebral malaria 64 (16/25) 25.53 [10.00 - 55.39] <0.001 12.79 [2.94 - 55.71] 0.001
Spontaneous bleeding 36.6 (26/71) 8.70 [4.98 - 15.19] <0.001   
Pulmonary oedema/ARDS 46.9 (30/64) 14.57 [8.24 - 25.74] <0.001 9.44 [4.07 - 21.88] <0.001
Liver dysfunction 40.4 (19/47) 9.22 [4.87 - 17.46] <0.001   
Severe anaemia 29.4 (10/34) 4.93 [2.27 - 10.74] <0.001   
Haemoglobinuria 52 (13/25) 13.83 [6.07 - 31.54] <0.001   
Renal failure 47.9 (23/48) 13.44 [7.17 - 25.17] <0.001 4.70 [1.74 - 12.69] 0.002
Respiratory distress 32.5 (13/40) 5.95 [2.93 - 12.08] <0.001 5.50 [1.70 - 17.85] 0.005
Metabolic acidosis 76.9 (10/13) 40.58 [10.91 - 150.90] <0.001 10.00 [1.26 - 79.57] 0.03
Hyperparasitaemia 40 (4/10) 7.44 [2.05 - 26.95] 0.002 5.69 [1.05 - 30.74] 0.04
Hypoglycaemia 50 (1/2) 10.42 [0.65 - 168.44] 0.10 # #
Shock 36.4 (4/11) 6.37 [1.82 - 22.25] 0.004   
Other abnormal lab parameters
Leucocytosis (≥11,000/mm3) 46.9 (23/49) 13.92 [7.41 - 26.16] <0.001 4.17 [1.54 - 11.24] 0.005
Leucopaenia (≤4,000/mm3) 2.4 (4/169) 0.23 [0.08 - 0.63] 0.004 0.26 [0.07 - 1.00] 0.05
Severe thrombocytopaenia (≤40,000/mm3) 23.5 (48/204) 7.33 [4.43 - 12.12] <0.001 5.70 [2.77 - 11.73] <0.001
  1. *Confidence intervals that do not overlap the null value of odds ratio = 1, and P-value <0.05 are shown in bold font.
  2. #Statistics could not be computed.
  3. ^Patients with mortality outcome were excluded from analysis.
  4. $Mixed infection was excluded due to insufficient cohort size.