Three-dimensional models of the avian Plasmodium AMA-1 protein. The ab initio-generated models are based on the A) 556 aa sequence of P. gallinaceum AMA-1, B) 155 aa residues in AMA-1 domain I of P. lucens, and C) 152 aa residues in AMA-1 domain I of P. falciparum. Both stereo (left) and surface (right) views are shown. Domain I, II and III of P. gallinaceum AMA-1 are coloured yellow, red and blue, respectively. Conserved hydrophobic residues that line the putative hydrophobic trough are labelled and highlighted in green. Plasmodium lucens and P. falciparum AMA-1 models are coloured as follows: conserved hydrophobic residues are shown in blue, highly polymorphic residues are shown in red, high-frequency dimorphisms are shown in pink, low-frequency dimorphisms are shown in orange. The observed amino acid insertions in domain I of P. lucens AMA-1 are shown in yellow.