DRAG mice sustain the complete vertebrate life cycle of P. falciparum infection. A) HSC-infused DRAG mice were challenged i.v. with 105 infectious P. falciparum sporozoites and five days later the livers were stained with anti-PfHSP70 (green) and DAPI (DNA, blue) and analysed by confocal microscopy. Data show a representative P. falciparum liver stage schizont. Scale bars are 10 μm. B) DRAG mice were challenged with sporozoites as above and followed for blood stage parasitaemia by PCR using primers specific for Plasmodium 18S rRNA. Data show percentage of parasitaemic mice (n = 31) from five independent challenges. C) PCR analysis in a group of four HSC-infused DRAG mice at day 28 post-challenge. NC, negative control; PC, positive control; M, DNA molecular markers. D) Giemsa staining of thick (upper panel) and thin (lower panel) blood smears from infected DRAG mice. Arrows show the presence of P. falciparum rings in thick smears and trophozoites in thin smears.