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Table 2 Univariate analysis of risk factors for all Plasmodium species combined and separate for P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale, Ratanakiri province, Cambodia 2012

From: Spatial clustering and risk factors of malaria infections in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia

Malariometric variable Plasmodium( all) P. falciparum P. vivax P. malariae P. ovale
Variable Level OR LCL UCL p-value OR LCL UCL p-value OR LCL UCL p-value OR LCL UCL p-value OR LCL UCL p-value
Age (years)     0.0158     0.8396     < 0.001     0.8691     0.0101
NA = 167 2-5 reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  5-14 1.489 0.998 2.220   1.224 0.715 2.094   1.895 1.119 3.210   1.122 0.174 7.228   2.161 0.184 25.452  
  15-39 1.041 0.696 1.557   1.103 0.650 1.874   1.038 0.602 1.789   1.009 0.162 6.289   0.623 0.046 8.451  
  ≥40 0.983 0.632 1.528   1.219 0.691 2.150   0.783 0.421 1.454   1.586 0.246 10.239   0.000 0.000 Inf  
Gender     0.3252     0.2859     0.8635     0.1787     0.8101
NA = 34 male reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  female 0.896 0.719 1.117   0.856 0.639 1.147   0.976 0.732 1.300   0.550 0.197 1.535   0.876 0.270 2.845  
Ethnicity     0.0246     0.0344     0.1698     0.1913     0.3692
NA = 49 Khmer reference   reference   reference   reference*   reference  
  Ethnic Minority 2.806 0.968 8.136   3.586 0.799 16.086   2.118 0.611 7.343   - - -   0.317 0.025 4.075  
Axillary Temp     0.0098     0.0228     0.0782     0.6108     0.1312
NA = 74 < 37,5 reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  ≥ 37,5 2.043 1.210 3.451   2.280 1.176 4.419   1.916 0.964 3.808   1.775 0.169 18.610   4.308 0.741 25.031  
Sleeping time     0.1125     0.6625     0.1707     0.8935     0.7539
NA = 61 < 20:00 reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  ≥ 20:00 0.821 0.644 1.048   0.932 0.674 1.288   0.807 0.592 1.101   0.938 0.309 2.840   1.206 0.335 4.337  
Waking up     0.6931     0.8017     0.6903     0.9341     0.8096
NA = 64 ≤ 05:00 reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  > 05:00 0.951 0.739 1.225   1.042 0.751 1.446   1.067 0.772 1.475   1.040 0.354 3.052   0.867 0.240 3.135  
Overnight plothut     0.0014     < 0.001     0.0798     < 0.001     0.4792
NA = 55 NO reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  YES 1.499 1.165 1.930   1.968 1.390 2.786   1.322 0.958 1.824   7.539 1.357 41.895   1.592 0.354 7.162  
Overnight forest     0.3778     0.2161     0.8208     0.8327     0.8543
NA = 62 NO reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  YES 1.150 0.852 1.551   1.272 0.870 1.865   0.955 0.636 1.435   0.877 0.208 3.687   0.865 0.155 4.823  
Use of bednet     0.2748     0.1393     0.4405     0.2752     0.0601
NA = 97 NO reference   reference   reference   reference   reference  
  YES 0.774 0.492 1.218   0.649 0.370 1.138   0.794 0.443 1.423   0.362 0.106 1.242   0.186 0.028 1.215  
  1. OR represents Odds Ratio statistics with respect to the reference category and LCL and UCL represent lower and upper 95% confidence limits based on a total sample size of N = 5793 individuals from 117 villages.
  2. *No P. malariae cases were observed in the Khmer Ethnic population.
  3. NA = number of individuals for which the variable was lacking.
  4. Inf = infinity.