Impact of varying temperature (T) on abundance and potentially infectious female with hypothetical vector control interventions. (a)-(d) and (e)-(h) depict abundance and PIF, respectively. Four levels of T are simulated: 22°C, 25°C, 30°C, and 36°C, with coverage C and killing K both being fixed at a moderate level of 50% (except for the special case of BMSForaging, K=0%). Each column represents a specific temperature (e.g., T = 25°C). Each colour-coded plot represents a specific HVCI, with colour keys presented in the legend. The x-axis denotes simulation time (in days), and the y-axis denotes abundance or PIF. HVCIs are applied on day 100, and continued up to the end of the simulation. The warm-up period is omitted from the results. Note that the scales on the y-axes are different, reflecting the corresponding mosquito populations obtained by using varying temperatures.