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Table 1 Univariate analysis of potential risk factors for malaria infection in year 2, as measured by nPCR

From: The independent effect of living in malaria hotspots on future malaria infection: an observational study from Misungwi, Tanzania

Variable N = 3,246 N (%) with malaria n = 1,683 Crude OR* (95% CI) Wald test P-value
Age group inyears     
0-4 824 349 [42.3] 1  
5-15 1,003 695 [69.3] 5.04 [3.82-6.63] <0.001
16-25 445 235 [52.8] 2.00 [1.41-2.72] <0.001
26-35 334 337 [44.8] 1.08 [0.76-1.56] 0.661
36+ 547 253 [39.7] 0.87 [0.63-1.19] 0.382
Sex     
Female 1,896 912 [48.1] 1  
Male 1,350 771 [57.1] 1.38 [1.13-1.68] 0.002
Sleep under ITN     
No 291 191 [65.6] 1  
Yes 2,955 1,492 [50.5] 0.42 [0.27-0.66] <0.001
Wealth quartile     
Poorest 610 337 [61.1] (Per additional increase in wealth quartile) 0.69 [0.58-0.82] <0.001
Very poor 887 492 [55.5]
Less poor 930 478 [51.4]
Least poor 819 340 [41.5]
Maternal education     
None 1,545 930 [60.2] 1  
Primary/+ 1,701 753 [44.3] 0.40 [0.28-0.57] <0.001
Breeding site     
No 1,650 737 [44.7] 1  
Yes 1,596 959 [59.3] 2.53 [1.75-3.65] <0.001
Household quality     
High 966 439 [45.4] 1  
Moderate 560 198 [35.4] 0.44 [0.26-0.75] 0.002
Poor 1,704 1,038 [60.9] 2.32 [1.54-3.50] <0.001
Indoor residual spraying     
No 523 281 [53.7] 1  
Yes 2,723 1,402 [51.5] 0.98 [0.60-1.60] 0.925
Number of cattle     
0-0 1,368 676 [49.4] 1  
1-10 718 433 [60.3] 1.96 [1.20-3.21] 0.007
11+ 1,160 574 [49.5] 0.68 [0.45-1.04] 0.075
Distance to health facility     
<1 km 712 242 [34.0] (per additional increase in distance group to health facility) 2.01 [1.69-2.40] <0.001
1-2.5 km 934 455 [48.7]
2.6-3.5 km 971 556 [57.3]
3.6+ km 611 424 [69.4]
Residence in a hotspot (SaTScan-nPCR)     
Coldspot 792 319 [40.3] 1  
Other 1,728 864 [50.0] 1.40 [0.91-2.15] 0.125
Hotspot 726 500 [68.9] 4.44 [2.64-7.46] <0.001
Residence in a hotspot (SaTScan-AMA-1)     
Coldspot 904 310 [34.3] 1  
Other 1,092 554 [50.7] 2.66 [1.71-4.13] <0.001
Hotspot 1,250 819 [65.5] 5.87 [3.79-9.05] <0.001
Residence in a hotspot (Kernel-nPCR)     
<14.9 804 390 [48.5] 1  
15-21.3 819 387 [47.2] 0.99 [0.60-1.64] 0.966
21.4-27.1 818 331 [40.5] 0.53 [0.32-0.88] 0.013
>27.1 805 575 [71.4] 3.45 [2.06-5.75] <0.001
Residence in a hotspot (Kernel-AMA-1)     
<27.9 814 309 [38.0] 1  
28-38.9 811 409 [50.4] 2.21 [1.34-3.66] 0.002
39-53.0 814 428 [52.6] 2.61 [1.58-4.31] <0.001
>53.0 807 537 [66.5] 5.15 [3.09-8.60] <0.001
  1. *OR = Odds ratio; adjusted for possible household clustering.