Limit of detection from standard extraction and microwave irradiation procedure. Repeated dilution series were made from 100,000 parasites/μl to one parasite/μl until negativity. Equal volumes of diluted culture were further used for DNA extraction and for standard PCR assays. A, Serial dilutions including dilutions from 100,000 parasites to negativitiy. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 parasite/μl culture applying the standard extraction procedure (QIAamp DNA mini blood kit); B, After microwave based DNA extraction the limit of detection was 5 parasites/μl.