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Table 1 Studies that measure adherence to AL

From: Adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of malaria: a systematic review of the evidence

Study design Study author Country Study year Population Sample size Measurement method Adherence
Cross-sectional Barnes [49] South Africa 2002 All ages 239 Self-report 96.0%
  Simba [46] Tanzania 2008 3-59mo 467 Bioassay (blood levels) plus self-report 88.3%
Prospective observational Depoortere [58] South Sudan 2002 6-59mo 107 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 59.1%
Fogg [31] Uganda 2002 <5 yrs 5-14 yrs 15 + yrs 210 Pill counts & self-report (questionnaire) & bioassay 90.0%
Ngasala [68] Tanzania 2007 3-59mo 177 Bioassay (D7 lumefantrine levels) 37%
Kabanywanyi [36] Tanzania 2008 <13 yrs 13 + yrs 552 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 89.2%
Lemma [43] Ethiopia 2008 >2mo 180 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 38.7%
Mace [38] Malawi 2009 6-59mo 5-17 yrs 18 + yrs 868 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 65.0%
Ogolla [44] Kenya 2009 12-59mo 73 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 75.8%
Lawford [37] Kenya 2009 <15 yrs 15 + yrs 918 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 64.1%
Kalyango [63] Uganda 2011 4-59mo 1256 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 99.2% (I)iii
98.5% (C)
  Zaw Win [47] Myanmar 2012iv All ages 248 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 89.5%
Pre- post intervention study Chinbuah [42] Ghana 2004/ 2005 6-59mo 363 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 92.5%v
  Kangwana [51] Kenya 2008/ 2009 3-59mo 3,288b; 3,182a Self-report 53.1% Before 67.0% Aftervi
RCT Mubi [64] Tanzania 2006 All ages 2156 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) 99.3% CDvii
97.4% RDT
Rahman [45] Bangladesh 2006/ 2007 >2 yrs 320 Pill counts & self -report (questionnaire) & bioassay 93.1%viii
  Cohen [57] Uganda 2009 All ages 395 Pill count or Self-report 65.8%
  1. iSelf-report only. The lumefantrine levels were not found to be significantly different between those that adhered vs. those that did not adhere.
  2. iiBased on a cut-off of 280 ng/ml. Only 37% had > 280 ng/ml.
  3. iii(I) = intervention and (C) = combination.
  4. ivYear published.
  5. vAlthough described as a pre-post intervention study, adherence data was only provided for the post-intervention phase.
  6. viNumbers presented are for the Intervention group. The control group was 40.5% before/49.4% after. There was no significant difference found between the two groups during the post survey.
  7. viiCD = Clinical Diagnosis Group; RDT = Rapid Diagnostic Test Group.
  8. viiiNon-Directly Observed Treatment.