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Table 3 Studies that measure adherence as comparative studies

From: Adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of malaria: a systematic review of the evidence

Study design Study author Country Study year Population Sample size Measurement method Drugs Adherence
RCT Bell [67] Malawi 2004-2006 >6 mo 841 Bioassay; self-report AL 100% SR 92.0% MEMS
(questionnaire); MEMS* CPD 99.2% SR 90.6% MEMS
SP 100% DOT
Dunyo [59] Gambia 2004 6mo - 10 yrs 1238 Pill Counts & self-report (questionnaire) AL 67.0%
CPD 94.0%
Faucher [60] Benin 2007 <5 yrs 240 Recovery of drug blisters AL 83.0%
AQAS 91.0%
(pill-count)
      SP 100%*
  Achan [55] Uganda 2007/2008 6-59 mo 175 Pill Counts & care giver AL QNN 94.5% 85.4%
       self-report (questionnaire)   
Cross-sectional Ajayi [39] Ghana Uganda Nigeria 2008** 6-59 mo 244 Self-report: AL Composite 94%
(timing, # doses, # of days) AQ + AS
Ajayi [40] Ghana Uganda Nigeria 2008** 6-59 mo 1096 Self-report: AL Composite 85%
(timing, # doses, # of days) AQ + AS
  Alba [41] Tanzania 2004-2008 All ages 32*** Self-report: AL 69.0%
(timing, # doses, # of days) SP 84.0%
QNN 0%
        Composite 51.0%
  1. *SR = Self-report; MEMS = Medical Event Monitoring System.
  2. **In Ghana and Nigeria treatments were given at home unsupervised. In Uganda the first dose was administered as DOT.
  3. ***Information for AL was only available in the third survey conducted in 2008, so results presented are only from that survey.