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Figure 5 | Malaria Journal

Figure 5

From: Analysis of the causes of spawning of large-scale, severe malarial epidemics and their rapid total extinction in western Provence, historically a highly endemic region of France (1745–1850)

Figure 5

Principal Component Analysis for monthly mean temperatures, with the binary epidemic factor as supplementary variable. For November and December, the mean temperatures of the previous years were used. On the one hand, the horizontal axis, accounting for 17% of the total variance, gives a temperature gradient. Hence, the more a year is situated on the left, the warmer it is globally. On the other hand, the vertical axis, accounting for 13% of the total variance, permits to identify the years with warm intermediate seasons (situated at the bottom of the graphic). Years with and without epidemic are indicated with red circles and green squares, respectively. Thus epidemics were observed in years that were generally warmer, especially for intermediate seasons. Moreover, years with epidemic seem to keep a consistent profile with respect to monthly temperatures, since the associated ellipse is smaller.

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