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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by acute kidney injury severity and clinical outcome

From: Correlation of biomarkers for parasite burden and immune activation with acute kidney injury in severe falciparum malaria

Variable Total No AKI Mild AKI Moderate AKI Severe AKI Test-for-trend
  (n = 137) (n = 31) (n = 32) (n = 42) (n = 32)  
  Age (years)a 35 (23–45) 26 (18–35) 33 (25–40) 35 (21–50) 40 (28–48) 0.003
  Malesc 110 (80) 27 (87) 27 (84) 30 (71) 26 (81) 0.301
Clinical       
  SBP (mmHg) 111 (19) 116 (15) 113 (20) 108 (20) 107 (21) 0.048
  RR (breaths/min)b 31 (30–33) 29 (27–30) 34 (31–37) 32 (29–34) 32 (28–35) 0.239
  GCS (#/15)a 8 (6–11) 8 (7–10) 8 (5–10) 9 (6–11) 9 (5–12) 0.937
Laboratory       
  HCT (%) 30 (8) 34 (7) 30 (9) 29 (8) 29 (8) 0.011
  Parasitaemia 73209 46723 33560 174140 78018 0.070
   (#/μL)b (50362–106419) (19688–110884) (11984–93981) (120635–251377) (36814–165340)
  Creatinine 1.53 0.69 1.11 1.75 3.80 <0.001
   (mg/dL)b (1.37–1.72) (0.63–0.76) (1.03–1.21) (1.60–1.91) (3.26–4.43)
  BUN (mg/dL)b 42 (37–48) 21 (18–25) 27 (23–32) 57 (50–65) 88 (73–105) <0.001
  CrCl 50.6 123.3 72.5 41.7 19.3 <0.001
   (ml/min)b (44.9–57.0) (112.8–134.8) (69.8–75.3) (39.0–44.5) (17.0–21.8)
  Potassium (mmol/L) 4.4 (1.0) 4.0 (0.7) 4.4 (1.1) 4.4 (0.7) 4.6 (1.4) 0.031
  Sodium (mmol/L) 133 (7) 129 (7) 134 (5) 133 (8) 133 (6) 0.069
  Albumin (g/L) 29 (5) 31 (5) 30 (4) 28 (5) 27 (6) <0.001
  Total bilirubin (mg/dL)b 4.5 (3.8–5.4) 4.1 (2.8–5.9) 3.1 (2.3–4.1) 4.9 (3.5–6.7) 6.7 (4.7–9.6) 0.011
  Direct bilirubin (mg/dL)b 1.8 (1.5–2.2) 1.2 (0.8–2.0) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 2.2 (1.5–3.2) 3.4 (2.2–5.2) <0.001
  ALT (U/L)b 30 (25–36) 22 (17–28) 30 (21–43) 36 (25–51) 34 (23–51) 0.064
  Base excess (mmol/L) -9 (7) -4 (4) -5 (4) -11 (7) -13 (7) <0.001
  Bicarbonate (mmol/L) 17 (5) 21 (4) 19 (4) 14 (5) 14 (4) <0.001
  pH 7.37 (0.13) 7.42 (0.08) 7.42 (0.09) 7.35 (0.12) 7.30 (0.17) <0.001
  pCO2 (mmHg) 28 (7) 32 (6) 29 (7) 25 (8) 26 (7) <0.001
  Lactate (mmol/L)b 5.1 (4.6–5.6) 4.3 (3.7–5.1) 3.9 (3.2–4.7) 7.1 (6.0–8.3) 4.9 (3.8–6.4) 0.029
Biomarkers       
  HRP2 1649 678 1413 2419 2833 <0.001
   (ng/ml)b (1297–2096) (397–1156) (967–2064) (1715–3413) (1648–4872)
  uNGAL/Ucr 1262 750 1,012 1281 2549 <0.001
   (pg/mg cr)b (1097–1451) (589–956) (745–1376) (1066–1541) (1943–3345)
Outcomes       
 RRT indicatedc 39 (28) 1 (3) 2 (6) 14 (33) 22 (69) <0.001
 Deathc 53 (39) 12 (39) 8 (25) 19 (45) 14 (44) 0.333
  1. All values are mean (SD) unless otherwise specified; amedian (IQR), bgeometric mean (95% CI), cnumber (%). P <0.05 using test-for-trend; significant in bold.
  2. AKI = acute kidney injury; SBP = systolic blood pressure; RR = respiratory rate; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; HCT = haematocrit; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CrCl = creatinine clearance; ALT = alanine transaminase; pCO2 = venous partial pressure carbon dioxide; HRP2 = Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2; suPAR = soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor; uNGAL/Ucr = urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin corrected for urine creatinine; RRT = renal replacement therapy.