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Table 1 Factors associated with delay in seeking treatment by bivariate analysis (n = 456)

From: Factors affecting delay in seeking treatment among malaria patients along Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, Thailand

Factors n Delay (%) OR (95% CI) p-value
Sociodemographic     
 Gender     
  Male 308 243 (78.9) 1.00  
  Female 148 119 (80.4) 1.10 (0.67-1.79) 0.708
 Age (years)     
  <35 233 184 (79.0) 1.00  
  ≥35 223 178 (79.8) 1.05 (0.67-1.66) 0.822
 Education level     
  Primary school and above 315 247 (78.4) 1.00  
  No education 141 115 (81.6) 1.22 (0.74-2.01) 0.443
 Occupation     
  Non- agriculture 228 178 (78.1) 1.00  
  Agriculture 228 184 (80.7) 1.17 (0.75-1.85) 0.488
 Monthly income (baht)     
  ≤2,000 231 184 (79.7) 1.00  
  >2,000 225 178 (79.1) 0.97 (0.61-1.52) 0.886
 Status     
  Single 120 91 (75.8) 1.00  
  Married 311 252 (81.0) 1.36 (0.82-2.26) 0.231
  Divorce/separated 25 19 (76.0) 1.01 (0.37-2.77) 0.986
 Ethnicity     
  Thai 156 112 (71.8) 1.00  
  Hill tribe 300 250 (83.3) 1.96 (1.24-3.12) 0.004*
 History of illness with malaria     
  Yes 385 307 (79.7) 1.00  
  No 71 55 (77.5) 0.87 (0.47-1.61) 0.663
 Species of infection     
  P. falcipalum 191 138 (72.3) 1.00  
  P. vivax 255 216 (84.7) 2.13 (1.34-3.39) 0.001*
  P. falcipalum & P. vivax 10 8 (80.0) 1.54 (0.32-7.47) 0.595
Treatment-seeking behaviour     
 Self-treatment     
  No 164 121 (73.8) 1.00  
  Yes 292 241 (82.5) 1.68 (1.06-2.66) 0.027*
 Visiting traditional healer     
  No 449 356 (79.3) 1.00  
  Yes 7 6 (85.7) 1.56 (0.19-13.18) 0.679
 Visiting private clinic     
  No 439 347 (79.0) 1.00  
  Yes 17 15 (88.2) 1.99 (0.45-8.85) 0.367
Previous visit to malaria clinic/public hospitals     
  No 434 344 (79.3) 1.00  
  Yes 22 18 (81.8) 1.17 (0.39-3.57) 0.773
 Visiting sub-district health promotion hospital/malaria post
  No 380 295 (77.6) 1.00  
  Yes 76 67 (88.2) 2.15 (1.03-4.48) 0.042*
Accessibility of health services     
 Distance (km)     
  ≤3 181 139 (76.8) 1.00  
  >3 275 223 (81.1) 1.30 (0.82-2.05) 0.268
 Transport     
  Private transport 322 250 (76.1) 1.00  
  Bicycle/walking 58 47 (81.0) 1.23 (0.61-2.25) 0.565
  Hired transport 76 65 (85.5) 1.70 (0.85-3.40) 0.131
 Travel time (minutes)     
  ≤30 384 300 (78.1) 1.00  
  >30 72 62 (86.1) 1.74 (0.85-3.53) 0.128
 Cost of visit (Baht)     
  ≤60 229 175 (76.4) 1.00  
  >60 227 187 (82.4) 1.44 (0.91-2.28) 0.117
Social support     
  High 243 178 (73.3) 1.00  
  Medium 114 96 (84.2) 1.95 (1.09-3.47) 0.024*
  Low 99 88 (88.9) 2.92 (1.47-5.81) 0.002*
 Receiving mass media messages about malaria
  Yes 401 315 (78.6) 1.00 0.239
  No 55 47 (85.5) 1.60 (0.73-3.52)  
  1. *The statistically significant identification at p-value < 0.05.