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Table 1 CM(A), no apparent brain pathology

From: Tissue distribution of migration inhibitory factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase in falciparum malaria and sepsis in African children

Patient no. Age (mo) Sex Parasitaemia (Pf) &/or Organism cultured Admitting coma score Coma duration Before/After admission (h) Brain vessel iNOS (n) Brain vessel MIF (n) Parasites in brain vessels Chest Wall vessel iNOS Chest Wall vessel MIF Chest Wall muscle iNOS
4 20 M 18.6% 2 missing/6 0-1+ (6) 0 (3) 1+ 0-1+ 4+ 2+
7 29 F 4+ 0 1/1 0-1+ (6) 0 (3) 1+ 0-1+ 3+ 4+
31 39 M 49% 1 7/22 0-1+ (9) 0 (3) 1+ 0-1+ 3+ 0-1+
33 25 M 0.26% 0 2/15 0-1+ (8) 0 (3) 1+ 2+ 2+ 0-1+
37 6 M 34% ¶ mal. trace 2 missing/14 0-1+ (9) 0 (3) 1+ 3+ 3+ 3+
47 22 F 11% 1 6/44 0-1+ (13) 0 (3) 1+ 0-1+ 3+ 0-1+
49 17 M 0.09% 1 2/34 0-1+ (12) 0 (3) 1+ 2+ 3+ 4+
22 18 M 1.75% 0 1/3 2+ (8) 0 (3) 1+ 3+ ND 2+
38 84 F 22% 0 5/35 2+ (9) 0 (3) 1+ 0-1+ 2+ 0-1+
45 34 M 2.5% 0 8/28 2+ (13) 0 (3) 1+ 0-1+ 3+ 0-1+
23 30 F 29% 0 5/7 3+ (9) 0 (3) 1+ 3+ 3+ 0-1+
CM(B), sequestered parasites only
5 14 M 3.5% 1 NA/18 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) 4+ 4+ 3+ 4+
21 25 F 0.33% 2 2/12 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) 4+ 4+ 4+ 4+
16 51 F 5.5% 1 22/6 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) 2+ 2+ 4+ 2+
39 18 M 0.27% 2 6/18 0-1+ (9) 0 (3) 4+ 2+ 3+ 2+
42 37 F 20% 0 missing 0-1+ (11) 0 (3) 4+ 3+ 4+ 2+
25 44 F 0.02% 2 1/11 2+ (8) 0 (3) 4+ 3+ 3+ 0-1+
1 27 F 31.1% 0 7/18 3+ (3) 0 (3) 2+ 2+ ND 2+
CM(C), sequestered parasites plus local intravascular inflammation
13 22 M 36.52% 0-1 15/1 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+
27 20 M 53.4% & Sal. typhi-m 0 missing/3 2+ (3) 0 (3) 3+ 4+ 3+ 0-1+
28 61 F 23.6% 0 12/0 2+ (9) 0 (3) 2+ 0-1+ 2+ 0-1+
29 43 M 33% 2 18/11 3+ (9) 0 (3) 3+ 0-1+ 3+ 0-1+
32 18 F 47% 0 24/3 3+ (9) 0 (3) 3+ 0-1+ 4+ 0-1+
34 70 M 2.4% 1 36/3 3+ (9) 0 (3) 4+ 3+ 3+ 2+
35 114 M 0.21% 1 12/15 3+ (9) 0 (3) 3+ 2+ 2+ 2+
36 21 F 0.88% 2 3/10 3+ (8) 0 (3) 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+
48 48 M 0.03% 2 4/22 3+ (13) 0 (3) 3+ 2+ 2+ 3+
6 17 F 5.8% 0 19/1 4+ (9) 0 (3) 3+ 4+ 3+ 4+
9 16 M 0.03% 1 11/23 4+ (3) 0 (3) 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+
11 29 F 29.5% & H. influ. B 1 28/30 4+ (3) 0 (3) 2+ 4+ 4+ 4+
15 8 F 0.94% 2 8/15 4+ (3) 0 (3) 2+ 3+ 2+ 3+
26 30 M 19% 1 1/31 4+ (9) 0 (3) 4+ 4+ 4+ missing
COMA (clinically judged not cerebral malaria)
* 8 41 F negative 3 3/9 3+ (3) 0 (3) negative 0-1+ 4+ 0-1+
10 66 F 0.01% 0 5/4 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) negative 2+ 0-1+ 2+
12 6 M Sal. enteritidis 2 1/4 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) negative 2+ 4+ 2+
14 9 F E. coli 0 missing 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) negative 4+ 4+ 4+
17 51 F negative 0 2/9 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) negative 0-1+ 0-1+ 0-1+
18 7 F H. influenzae B 1 48/14 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) negative 3+ 3+ 4+
20 96 F Tuberculosis 0 missing 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) negative 4+ 2+ 0-1+
24 48 F Strep. pneumoniae 3 missing 0-1+ (3) 0 (3) negative 2+ 4+ 2+
40 26 F 0.02% 1 24/63 2+ (9) 0 (3) negative 0-1+ 4+ 2+
44 21 F negligible 1 7/3 0-1+ (13) 0 (3) negative 2+ 2+ 2+
MALAWIAN CONTROLS (without terminal coma)
41 29 F Sal. typhimurium 5 NA/NA 0-1+ (13) 0 (3) negative 0-1+ 0-1+ 0-1+
* 50 144 F Strep. pneumoniae 5 NA/NA 0-1+ (13) 0 (3) negative 0-1+ 3+ 0-1+
AUSTRALIAN CONTROLS
n = 5   F/M NA NA NA/NA NA NA negative 0-1+ 0-1+ 0-1+
n = 7   F/M NA 5 NA/NA 0-1+ (3) 0 (3 ea) negative NA NA NA
  1. * Serologically positive for HIV (n) Number of brains areas examined ND = not done NA = not applicable