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Table 1 Kisumu susceptible and OCEAC Laboratory strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s. response to WHO susceptibility test.

From: Reduced bio-efficacy of permethrin EC impregnated bednets against an Anopheles gambiae strain with oxidase-based pyrethroid tolerance

Strains Insecticides No TKd50(CI) TKd95(CI) Tkd50R (CI) Mt ST.
Kis. 4% DDT 100 18.8 (17.6–20.0) 28.7 (25.8–33.7) -- 100 S
  1.0% permethrin 99 9.2 (8.6–9.7) 14.3 (13.2–16.0) -- 100 S
  0.25% permethrin 100 12.4 (11.2–13.7) 28.8 (24.8–35.4) -- 94.1 T
  0.05% deltamethrin 89 9.4 (8.4–10.2) 17.2 (15.6–20.0) -- 100 S
  0.025% deltamethrin 100 8.9 (8.1–9.7) 19.7 (17.5–23.0) -- 100 S
  0.2% cyfluthrin 120 8.6 (8.0–9.1) 15.5 (14.1–17.7) -- 100 S
OC-Lab. 4% DDT 100 9.9 (86.1–119.6) 268.9 (195.0–465.5) 5.2 (4.0–6.7) 26 R
  1.0% permethrin 101 12.2 (11.5–12.8) 17.5 (16.3–19.5) 1.3 (0.9–1.7) 98.7 S
  0.25% permethrin 125 45.7 (13.6–153.3) 109.2 (3.3–3593.0) 3.7 (0.6–22.9) 78.7 R
  0.05% deltamethrin 100 16.8 (13.2–21.3) 36.2 (23.7–55.5) 1.8 (1.1–2.9) 100 S
  0.025% deltamethrin 125 24.9 (23.6–26.5) 41.2 (37.5–46.9) 2.8 (2.3–3.4) 94.8 T
  0.2% cyfluthrin 108 17.8 (12.7–24.8) 34.1 (32.5–37.3) 2.1 (1.3–2.9) 94.4 T
  1. Kis.: Kisumu strain, OC-Lab.: OCEAC Laboratory strain, No: Number of tested mosquitoes, Tkd50: knockdown time in minutes for 50% tested mosquitoes, Tkd95: knockdown time in minutes for 95% tested mosquitoes, CI: confidence interval at 95%, Tkd50 R: Tkd50 OC-Lab strain / Tkd50 Kisumu strain, Mt.: Mortality rate 24 h post exposure, ST: status, S: indicates susceptibility, T: suspects resistance to be confirmed (or tolerance), R: suggests resistance.