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Table 3 Reported symptoms and single most troubling symptom of MRI with and without convulsions

From: Community concepts of malaria-related illness with and without convulsions in southern Ghana

Categories of distress reported1 Reported spontaneously and probed2 Most troubling
  With Convulsion (n = 101) Without convulsion (n = 100) With Convulsion (n = 101) Without convulsion (n = 100)
  Total (%) Fraction Spont. Total (%) Fraction Spont.   
Convulsions related symptoms 98.3 0.72 64.0 0.05** 67.3 6.0**
Unconscious 86.2 0.39 18.0 0.06** 26.7 2.0**
Stiffness x x 0.0 0.00 21.8 0.0**
Easily startled/frightened 76.3 0.32 59.0 0.03** 7.9 3.0
Rolling the eye balls x x 0.0 0.00 5.9 0.0**
Biting the lips 42.5 0.17 0.0 0.00** 2.0 0.0
Foaming mouth 55.4 0.31 0.0 0.00** 2.0 0.0
Folded arms 52.5 0.64 0.0 0.00** 1.0 0.0
Shaking x x 0.0 0.00 0.0 1.0
Fever related symptoms 37.6 0.55 98.0 0.79** 9.9 34.0**
Hot bodies x x x x 6.9 11.0
Sweating 14.0 0.14 55.0 0.06 1.0 0.0
Yellowish eyes 28.8 0.65 97.0 0.78** 1.0 18.0**
Yellowish urine x x x X 1.0 4.0
Chills and Rigors x x x X 0.0 1.0
Non specific symptoms 93.1 0.52 99.0 0.66** 20.8 56.0**
Weakness 72.3 0.52 86.0 0.51* 11.9 15.0
Breathlessness 51.4 0.14 29.0 0.07** 5.9 1.0
Refusal of food x x x X 1.0 16.0**
Weight loss 35.5 0.14 63.0 0.25** 1.0 12.0
Diarrhoea 0.0 0.00 33.0 0.06** 1.0 0.0
Vomiting x x x X 0.0 7.0**
Paleness 44.5 0.20 74.0 0.23** 0.0 4.0
Sleepiness 0.0 0.00 12.0 0.25** 0.0 1.0
Bitterness in the mouth 0.0 0.00 33.0 0.61** 0.0 0.0
Joint and bodily pains 16.0 0.25 36.0 0.22** 0.0 0.0
Crying x x x x 0.0 0.0
  1. 1 Symptoms analysed as groups (in bold) based on reported categories that follow.
  2. *p ≤ 0.10, ** p ≤ 0.05. Wilcoxon test for comparison of prominence of reported categories (2 = spontaneous, 1 = probed response, 0 = not reported), and Fisher's exact test for most troubling symptoms.
  3. 2Column values indicate frequency of reported categories and the fraction of these reported spontaneously. Column values marked by "x" indicate categories specified in the vignettes.