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Table 2 Brainstem features of raised ICP, seizures after admission and type of posturing

From: Decorticate, decerebrate and opisthotonic posturing and seizures in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria

Brainstem signs and seizures after admission No Posturing (%) Decorticate posturing (%) P value Decerebrate posturing (%) P value Opisthotonus posturing (%) P value
Number 254 80   61   22  
Deterioration in level of consciousness 64 (25.2) 43 (53.8) < 0.001 25 (41.0) 0.01 14 (63.6) <0.001
Pupillary reaction        
   Sluggish 82 (32.4) 32 (40.0) 0.21 25 (41.0) 0.20 10 (45.5) 0.21
   Fixed 12 (4.7) 1 (1.3) 0.32* 4 (6.6) 0.52* 2 (9.1) 0.31*
Pupil sizes        
   Constricted 42 (16.5) 6 (7.5) 0.05 5 (8.2) 0.10 3 (13.6) 1.00*
   Dilated 41 (16.2) 20 (25.0) 0.08 17 (27.9) 0.03 6 (27.3) 0.19
   Unequal 3 (1.2) 2 (2.5) 0.60* 3 (4.9) 0.09* 1 (4.5) 0.28*
Dysconjugate vision 42 (17.1) 27 (33.8) < 0.01 13 (21.3) 0.44 8 (36.3) 0.02
Ocular fundi        
   Congested retinal veins 11 (4.3) 11 (13.8) < 0.01 2 (3.3) 1.00* 4 (18.2) 0.02*
   Blurred disc margins 6 (2.4) 6 (7.5) 0.03 6 (9.8) <0.01 2 (9.1) 0.13*
   Papilloedema 4 (2.4) 3 (3.8) 0.37* 7 (11.5) <0.001 1 (4.5) 0.34*
   Retinal haemorrhages 18 (7.1) 12 (15) 0.03 11 (18.0) <0.01 3 (13.6) 0.23*
Any fundoscopic evidence of Raised Intracranial Pressure 16 (6.3) 15 (18.8) < 0.01 12 (19.7) 0.001 5 (22.7) <0.01
Horizontal oculocephalic deviation        
   No deviation 17 (6.7) 6 (7.5) 0.80 3 (4.9) 0.78* 2 (9.1) 0.66*
   Minimal deviation 44 (17.3) 12 (15) 0.63 10 (16.4) 0.86 5 (22.7) 0.53
Respiration        
   Irregular 49 (19.3) 13 (16.3) 0.54 20 (32.8) 0.02 5 (22.7) 0.70
   Shallow 42 (16.5) 5 (6.3) 0.02 12 (19.7) 0.56 3 (13.6) 1.00*
   Respiratory arrest with good cardiac Output 12 (4.7) 10 (12.5) 0.01 6 (9.8) 0.12 3 (13.6) 0.11*
Clinical seizures observed in the ward 129 (50.8) 48 (60.0) 0.15 42 (68.9) 0.01 17 (77.3) 0.02
5 or more seizures in the ward 29 (11.4) 13 (16.3) 0.26 13 (21.3) 0.04 6 (27.3) 0.03
Type of clinical seizure        
   Partial 74 (29.1) 31 (38.8) 0.11 22 (36.1) 0.29 13 (59.1) <0.01
   Partial with secondary generalization 29 (11.4) 13 (16.3) 0.26 9 (14.8) 0.47 5 (22.7) 0.12
   Generalised 81 (31.9) 29 (36.3) 0.47 30 (49.2) 0.01 8 (36.4) 0.67
  1. * Fisher's exact test