Association of plasma lactate levels with HCN (a) and plasma IL-12 concentration (b) in children with severe malaria (N = 26) and non-severe malarial anaemia controls (N = 60). Scatter plot of the association of lactate concentration and IL-12 in children with severe anaemia and malaria (c) and non-severely anaemic controls with malaria (d). Bars show mean and error bars standard error of the mean. ** P < 0.01 (Mann-Whitney test). R2 = coefficient of determination.