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Table 3 Factors associated with P. falciparum infection and anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dl), significant associations in univariate tests (N = 296)1

From: Malaria and anaemia among children in two communities of Kumasi, Ghana: a cross-sectional survey

Variables tested Prevalence of P. falciparum infection (95% CI) Prevalence of Hb < 11 (95% CI)
Education ≥ middle school     
   No (n = 132) 40.9% (32.5, 49.3)*** 63.6% (55.4, 71.8)***
   Yes (n = 164) 12.8% (7.7, 17.9) 39.6% (32.1, 47.1)
Ethnic group     
   Akan/Ga/Ewe (n = 167) 16.2% (10.6, 21.8)*** 35.9% (28.6, 43.2)***
   North/Immigrant (n = 129) 37.2% (28.9, 45.5) 69.0% (61.0, 77.0)
Socioeconomic score2     
   Lowest (n = 80) 47.5% (36.6, 58.4)*** 67.5% (57.2, 77.8)**
   Middle (n = 109) 26.6% (18.3, 34.9) 47.7% (38.3, 57.1)
   Highest (n = 107) 7.5% (2.5, 12.5) 40.2% (30.9, 49.5)
Use repellents/coils/sprays     
   No (n = 83) 15.7% (7.9, 23.5)* 41.0% (30.4, 51.6)*
   Yes (n = 213) 29.1% (23.0, 35.2) 54.0% (47.3, 60.7)
Nearest health facility3     
   < 150 m (n = 97) 12.4% (5.8, 19.0)*** 45.4% (35.5, 55.3)**
   150–250 m (n = 112) 26.8% (18.6, 35.0) 42.9% (33.7, 52.1)
   ≥ 250 m (n = 87) 37.9% (27.7, 48.1) 65.5% (55.5, 75.5)
Child sex     
   Male (n = 138) 24.6% (17.4, 31.8) 58.0% (49.8, 66.2)*
   Female (n = 158) 25.9% (19.1, 32.7) 43.7% (36.0, 51.4)
Child age group     
   1–3 years (n = 108) 15.7% (8.8, 22.6)** 61.1% (51.9, 70.3)**
   4–6 years (n = 106) 34.0% (25.0, 43.0) 51.9% (42.4, 61.4)
   7–9 years (n = 82) 26.8% (17.2, 36.4) 34.1% (23.8, 44.4)
Rural travel, past 3 weeks     
   No (n = 286) 23.8% (18.9, 28.7)** 49.3% (43.5, 55.1)
   Yes (n = 10) 70.0% (41.6, 98.4) 80.0% (55.2, 100)
Malnourished(stunted, wasted or underweight)     
   No (n = 226/294) 24.8% (19.2, 30.4) 46.5% (40.0, 53.0)*
   Yes (n = 68/294) 26.5% (16.0, 37.0) 63.2% (51.7, 74.7)
Stunted (height-for-age Z-score < -2)     
   No (n = 253/295) 23.7% (18.5, 28.9) 47.0% (40.8, 53.2)**
   Yes (n = 42/295) 33.3% (19.0, 47.6) 71.4% (57.7, 85.1)
P. falciparum infection     
   No (n = 221) n/a 42.1% (35.6, 48.6)***
   Yes (n = 75)    74.7% (64.9, 84.5)
Clinical malaria4     
   No (n = 266) n/a 47.0% (41.0, 53.0)**
   Yes (n = 30)    80.0% (65.7, 94.3)
  1. 1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. 2. Based on World Bank asset scores for Ghana [12]: lowest (scores = 0,1), middle (2), highest (3.4)
  3. 3. Health facility = government hospital or primary care clinic
  4. 4. Clinical malaria: P. falciparum with reported fever in past 48 hours and/or current axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C