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Table 1 Factors associated with IgG+IgA+IgM seroprevalence

From: Seroprevalence of malaria in inhabitants of the urban zone of Antananarivo, Madagascar

    P. falciparum IgG+IgA+IgM
   n negative positive P
Entire cohort   1,059 43.9% 56.1%  
Sex Sex ratio (male/female) = 0.59     
  Male 391 14.7% 22.2% 0.044
  Female 668 29.2% 33.9%  
Age Mean age = 29.56 ± 17.66 years     
  < 15 years 251 12.9% 10.8% < 0.0001
  ≥ 15 years 808 31.0% 45.3%  
Social class No schooling 49 2.2% 2.5% NS
  Primary school level 375 16.8% 18.6%  
  Secondary school level 519 20.3% 28.7%  
  Post-secondary studies 116 4.6% 6.3%  
Travel outside city (previous 6 months) No travel 761 33.4% 38.4% 0.021
  Travel to Central Highlands 188 6.4% 11.3%  
  Travel to the coast 110 4.1% 6.3%  
Malaria episodes (previous 6 months) 0 declared episodes, no treatment 875 36.5% 46.2% NS
  1 declared episode with treatment 134 5.7% 7.0%  
  More than 1 episode 50 1.8% 2.9%  
Rice field index Lower than 26.98% 785 29.6% 44.5% < 0.0001
  Higher than 26.99% (last quartile) 274 14.3% 11.6%  
Subjects living in the city for more than 4 years and had not travelled outside the city in the previous 6 months 690 46.5% 53.5%  
Sex Sex ratio (male/female) = 0.49     
  Male 226 14.1% 18.7% NS
  Female 464 32.5% 34.8%  
Age Mean age = 30.25 ± 18.07 years     
  < 15 years 165 13.3% 10.6% 0.006
  ≥ 15 years 525 33.2% 42.9%  
Rice field index Lower than 26.98% 512 32.3% 41.9% 0.008
  Higher than 26.99% (last quartile) 178 14.2% 11.6%