Skip to main content

Table 1 Exogenous variables considered for mosquito population

From: Modelling entomological-climatic interactions of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in two Colombian endemic-regions: contributions to a National Malaria Early Warning System

Exogenous variable Used variable Depending on Default value
Hatching time delay kE or R_E [days] Water T (A)
Eggs becoming non-viable φE or E_NV [days] Water T (B)
Larvae developing time delay kL or R_L [days] Water T (C)
Larvae becoming non-viable φL or L_NV [days] Water T (D)
Adult emergence time delay kem or R_EM [days] Water T (E)
Pupae becoming non-viable φPU, PU_NV [days] Water T (F)
Induced mortality of mosquitoes IM_M [days] SEC 98–191.8 [21]
Plasmodium species     P. falciparum
Human Blood Index HBI [dec] Species 0.38–0.46 [3]
Rate of oviposition (eggs per batch) Rpo or R_O [eggs/vector] T, SEC 75–150
Degree days required for digestion of blood Dbd [°C-day] RH 36.5 at RH 70–80% [3]
Minimum T required for digestion of blood meal Tmin, bd [°]   9.9 [3]
Degree days required for parasite development Dm [°-day] Species 100–120 [3]
Min T required for parasite development Tmin, p [°] Species 16 [3]
  1. (A) kE represents the average period of time spent in the virtual compartment E (eggs) and denotes the time elapsed between oviposition and the development into larva-1st instar. Values of kE range from 1 1/2 days at 30° to 7 days at 20°, and were estimated under controlled laboratory conditions (CLC) for temperatures of 24, 27, 30, and 33°C. (B) Values of φE range from 5 days for temperatures ≤23°C and ≥31°C, to 50 days at 27°C (under CLC). (C) kL represents the average period of time spent in the virtual compartment L (larvae) and denotes the time elapsed since the eclosion (or larva-1st instar) until the development into pupa. Values of kL may range from 8.9 days at 33°C to 13.6 days at 24°C (under CLC). (D) Values of φL range from 3 days for temperatures ≤23°C and ≥31°C, to 32 days at 27°C (under CLC). (E) kem represents the average period of time spent in the virtual compartment PU (pupae) and denotes the time elapsed between pupation and the emergence of an adult. Values of kem range from 1 day at 33°C to 2 days at 24°C (under CLC). Finally, (F) values of φPU range from 4 days for temperatures ≤23°C and ≥30°C, to 11 days at 27°C (under CLC). For more detail, see Figure 10B. The actual average temperature T must range between Tmin, bd and the maximum temperature of about 40°C (this relationship was estimated for An. maculipennis and is used because it agrees with the observations of other Anopheles species [36,17,37,30,38]).
\