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Table 3 Relative risk of malaria, according to ecologic risk factors, 2001–2004.

From: Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors

  2001 2002 2003 2004
  (OR, 95% CI)a
House Construction     
   Metal Roof 1.59 (1.03, 2.48)* 1.77 (1.26, 2.48)*** 1.46 (1.04, 2.07)* 1.29 (0.88, 1.89)
   Mud Walls 2.39 (0.93, 6.17) 1.48 (0.63, 3.5) 0.61 (0.21, 1.73) 1.76 (0.86, 3.63)
Population Density (per 250 people/km2 increase) 0.83 (0.69, 0.98)* 0.75 (0.65, 0.87)*** 0.72 (0.62, 0.84)*** 0.91 (0.78, 1.07)
Number in household 1.01 (0.92, 1.10) 1.14 (1.08, 1.22)*** 1.06 (1.00, 1.13)* 0.99 (0.92, 1.07)
Age (per 10 year increase) 1.11 (1.02, 1.21)* 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) 1.01 (0.92, 1.10)
Distance to Road (per 100 m increase) 1.06 (0.90, 1.24) 0.90 (0.78, 1.01) 0.95 (0.84, 1.09) 0.92 (0.78, 1.08)
Distance to Swamp (per 100 m increase) 0.92 (0.88, 0.97)** 0.92 (0.89, 0.95)*** 0.92 (0.89, 0.96)*** 0.95 (0.91, 0.99)*
Dist. to Forest (per 100 m increase) 0.97 (0.94, 1.01) 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)* 0.98 (0.94, 1.00)* 0.98 (0.94, 1.01)
Dist. to Rivers (per 100 m increase) 1.08 (0.92, 1.26) 1.19 (1.07, 1.32)*** 1.23 (1.10, 1.37)** 1.06 (0.92, 1.22)
Dis. to Hlth. Center (per 100 m increase) 1.02 (1.00, 1.05)* 1.04 (1.02, 1.06)*** 1.04 (1.02, 1.05)** 1.02 (1.00, 1.04)
Dist. to Boreholes (per 100 m increase) 0.97 (0.92, 1.03) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.99 (0.96, 1.04) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04)
Altitude (per 50 m increase) 0.53 (0.39, 0.73)*** 0.56 (0.43, 0.73)*** 0.57 (0.44, 0.73)*** 0.61 (0.45, 0.81)***
  1. a Odds ratios assessed by GEE Estimate; 95% CI,
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. ** p < 0.01
  4. *** p < 0.001