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Table 4 Multivariate models of malaria risk according to ecologic factors, 2001–2004.

From: Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors

  2001 2002 2003 2004
  (OR, 95% CI)a
Metal Roof - 1.52 (1.10, 2.14)* 1.46 (1.04, 2.06)* -
Number in Household   1.10 (1.04, 1.16)**   
Distance to Swamp (per 100 m increase) 0.87 (0.83, 0.92)*** 0.90 (0.85, 0.97)** 0.87 (0.84, 0.91)*** -
Distance to Forest Edge (per 100 m increase) 0.90 (0.87, 0.95)*** 0.87 (0.85, 0.91)*** 0.90(0.87, 0.94)*** 0.93 (0.89, 0.97)**
Elevation (per 50 m increase) - 0.60 (0.38, 0.95)* - 0.46 (0.32, 0.66)***
  1. a Odds ratio assessed by Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Only factors significantly associated with malaria risk shown in table. OR, odds ratio; 95 % CI, 95 % confidence interval.
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. ** p < 0.01
  4. *** p < 0.001