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Table 5 Relative risk of malaria according to ecologic risk factors, 2001–2004, household-level analysis.

From: Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors

  2001 2002 2003 2004
  (OR, 95% CI)a
House Construction     
   Metal Roof 1.57 (1.03, 2.40)* 1.43 (1.09, 1.90)* 1.44 (1.05, 1.96)* 1.28 (0.88, 1.84)
   Permanent Walls 2.35 (1.21, 6.17) 1.37 (0.82, 2.26) 0.57 (0.21, 1.52) 2.03 (1.00, 4.11)
Population Density (per 250 people/km2 increase) 0.84 (0.79, 0.90)* 0.75 (0.72, 0.80)* 0.73 (0.63, 0.84)* 0.91 (0.76, 1.06)
Distance to Road (per 100 m increase) 1.06 (0.90, 1.25) 0.97 (0.87, 1.09) 0.96 (0.70, 1.32) 0.94 (0.81, 1.10)
Distance to Swamp (per 100 m increase) 0.93 (0.89, 0.97)*** 0.93 (0.90, 0.96)*** 0.93 (0.90, 0.96)*** 0.95 (0.91, 0.98)**
Dist. to Forest (per 100 m increase) 0.98 (0.94, 1.02) 0.96 (0.92, 0.98)* 0.98 (0.95, 1.01) 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)
Dist. to Rivers (per 100 m increase) 1.09 (0.91, 1.28) 1.13 (1.03, 1.26)* 1.20 (1.08, 1.34)** 1.08 (0.94, 1.24)
Dis. to Hlth. Center (per 100 m increase) 1.03 (1.00, 1.05)*** 1.03 (1.02, 1.05)*** 1.03 (1.02, 1.05)* 1.02 (1.00, 1.04)*
Dist. to Boreholes (per 100 m increase) 0.97 (0.92, 1.02) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04)
Altitude (per 50 m increase) 0.54 (0.39, 0.74)*** 0.58 (0.47, 0.70)*** 0.58 (0.47, 0.73)*** 0.60 (0.46, 0.77)***
  1. a Odds ratios assessed by Poisson regression using GEE Estimate; 95% CI,
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. ** p < 0.01
  4. *** p < 0.001