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Table 6 Multivariate models of malaria risk according to ecologic factors, 2001–2004, household-level analysis.

From: Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors

  2001 2002 2003 2004
  (OR, 95% CI)a
Metal Roof 1.39 (1.18, 1.62)** 1.35 (1.22, 1.51)*** 1.40 (1.03, 1.89)* -
Distance to Swamp (per 100 m increase) 0.94 (0.92, 0.98)** 0.96 (0.95, 0.98)*** 0.88 (0.86, 0.92)*** 0.91 (0.88, 0.95)***
Distance to Forest Edge (per 100 m increase) 0.91 (0.89, 0.93)*** 0.90 (0.89, 0.91)*** 0.92 (0.89, 0.95)*** 0.94 (0.90, 0.98)**
Elevation (per 50 m increase) 0.56 (0.44, 0.70)*** 0.54 (0.47, 0.63)*** - -
  1. a Odds ratio assessed by Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Only factors significantly associated with malaria risk shown in table. OR, odds ratio; 95 % CI, 95 % confidence interval.
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. ** p < 0.01
  4. *** p < 0.001