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Table 4 Cytokine distribution in the Indian population: median TNF, IFN-γ and IL-10 per clinical group.

From: Total and functional parasite specific IgE responses in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients exhibiting different clinical status

  NEC (min-max) EC (min-max) UM (min-max) SM (min-max) CM (min-max) ExCM (min-max)
TNF (pg/ml) 57 (39–73) 78 (63–120) 180 (119–207) 200 (173–381) 530 (258–1227) 81 (69–124)
IFN- γ (pg/ml) 23 (10–31) 22 (17–201) 119 (70–153) 127 (111–200) 65 (45–101) 32 (11–53)
IL-10 (pg/ml) 13 (5–26) 22 (11–31) 120 (97–147) 176 (121–253) 301 (175–506) 85 (40–108)
IL-4 (pg/ml) 18 (8–40) 58 (23–84) 65 (31–204) 69 (50–89) 62 (40–85) 48 (29–80)
  1. NEC – non endemic control, EC – endemic control, UM – uncomplicated malaria, SM – severe malaria (non-cerebral), CM – cerebral malaria, ExCM – Ex-cerebral malaria.
  2. Comparing group by group with the Endemic control: TNF was significantly lower in NEC (p = 0,0006) and higher in UM (p = 1,19 × 10-7), SM (p = 1,01 × 10-5) and CM (p = 2,26 × 10-7); IFN-γ was significantly higher in all diseased groups (UM – p = 5,11 × 10-6, SM – p = 1,01 × 10-6, CM – p = 9,71 × 10-6); IL-10 was significantly higher in all diseased groups (UM – p = 1,04 × 10-7, SM – p = 1,01 × 10-5 and CM – p = 2,46 × 10-7).