Schematic cross-section in the upper Isère river valley (upstream from confluence with Arc river) illustrating the evolution of hydraulic operations (period 1830–1865). 1: Farmed silty soils on old alluvial terraces. 2: Permanent mosquito-breeding habitats (old river channels flooded by seeping water). 3: Permanent functional braided channels. 4: Braided channels flooded during high-flows periods. 5: Embanked/channelized river. 6: Man-made canal (new channel) more or less filled by alluvial deposits. 7: Berm delineating warped basins. 8: Warped basin flooded by a layer of flowing water. 9: Warped basin more or less filled up by fine alluvial deposits (temporary mosquito breeding habitats on waterlogged soils). 10: Reclaimed areas for farming after drainage (ditches) and underdraining operations (tiles). 11: Lateral canal conveying seeping water and small tributaries to downstream.