The experimental set up. (a) In experiments 1 and 2, a total of 320 larvae were separated into the parental treatments of high and low food, with individual larvae placed in a standard 30 ml vial containing 5 mls of distilled water. (b) After emergence, adult parents were transferred to a mating cage and kept in good conditions. (c) Eggs from within treatment matings were split into high and low food. (d) In experiment 1, post emergence, the offspring were starved and their survival determined. In experiment 2, half of each offspring treatment was starved, while the other half was transferred to one of four mating cages for a blood meal. (e) After the blood meal individual females were transferred to standard vials for haematin collection. (f) After haematin collection individual females were transferred to standard vials for egg laying.