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Table 3 Random effects panel data models of generalized two stage least squares (G2SLS) estimation (parsimonious and extended)

From: Role of information and communication networks in malaria survival

  Model 1: Telephone Model 2: TV
  Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 1 Stage 2
Dep. Var. → Phone Death ratio TV Death ratio
Parsimonious models
Telephone   -0.52 (0.149)***   
TV     -0.693 (0.186)***
GDP 0.965 (0.098)***   0.446 (0.127)***  
Urban 0.027 (0.004)***   0.038 (0.005)***  
External res. for health -0.0039 (0.0029) 0.00002 (0.008) -0.004 (0.003) -0.002 (0.008)
Out-of-pocket health expend. 0.0029 (0.0025) -0.013 (0.007)*** 0.01 (0.003)*** -0.006 (0.007)
Constant -5.59 (0.778)*** -4.51 (0.859)*** -1.67 (1.01)* -3.84 (0.985)***
N 236 236 221 221
Overall R2   0.23   0.14
F-stat 0.000 0.0007 0.00 0.0006
Extended models
Telephone   -0.483 (0.187)***   
TV     -0.643 (0.212)***
GDP 0.817 (0.095)***   0.381 (0.132)***  
Urban 0.026 (0.004)***   0.038 (0.005)***  
External res. for health -0.0045 (0.002)* 0.00 (0.008) -0.004 (0.003) -0.002 (0.008)
Out-of-pocket health expend. 0.003 (0.002) -0.013 (0.007)*** 0.01 (0.003)*** -0.006 (0.007)
Public health 0.023 (0.033) 0.003 (0.103) 0.019 (0.046) 0.009 (0.108)
Immunization 0.011 (0.002)*** -0.005 (0.006) 0.004 (0.002)*** -0.006 (0.006)
Constant -5.3 (0.722)*** -4.22 (0.868)*** -1.53 (1.01) -3.52 (1.01)***
N 236 236 221 221
Overall R2   0.23   0.16
F-stat 0.00 0.0008 0.00 0.0012
  1. Note: ***, **, * imply significance at 1%, 5% and 10% levels, respectively; numbers in parentheses are the heteroscedasticity-corrected robust standard errors.