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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients and healthy controls

From: Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Characteristics SA IVH CM RD UM AC p value
n 36 18 27 6 21 19 -
Female sex, % 43.7 21.1 40.7 60.0 42.8 47.8 -
Mean Age, years (95% CI) 2.5** (1.8–3.1) 4.8 (3.1–6.6) 4.3 (3.3–5.3) 2.7** (2.0–5.5) 5.2 (3.6–6.8) 5.7 (4.4–7.1) <0.001b
DCT Positive, n (%) 10* (27.8%) 7* (38.8%) 4 (11.8%) 3* 50.0% 2 (9.5%) 5.0* (26.3%) <0.05a
Mean Hb, g/dL (95% CI) 4.1 (3.8–4.3) 6.5 (5.6–7.4) 7.2 (6.4–8.0) 5.5 (4.6–6.2) 9.2 (8.5–9.8) 10.9 (10.6–11.4) -
Parasite density, geometric mean parasites × 103/μL (95% CI) 63.0*** (34.3–94.1) 98.7 (47.6–284.5) 114.9 (67.4–162.6) 80.9 (12.1–256.9) 57.3*** (41.0–107.3) 1.4 (0–2.9) <0.001b
Spleen size, cm (95% CI) 2.3 (1.5–3.0) 0.6(0–1.6) 0.7 (0.1–1.4) ND 1.9 (0.6–3.2) ND -
  1. Non-overlapping patient groups (see text). SA, severe anaemia (Hb < 5 g/dL). IVH, intravascular haemolysis with evidence of haemoglobinuria. CM, cerebral malaria (coma score ≤ 3). RD, respiratory distress. UM, uncomplicated malaria with Hb > 8 g/dL. AC, healthy, asymptomatic controls. DCT, direct Coombs' test. *Significantly higher than UM and CM. ** Significantly lower than CM, UM and AC. *** Significantly lower than IVH and CM. ND, not done.
  2. a = Calculated using X2
  3. b = Calculated using ANOVA