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Table 3 Sensitivity and specificity of reported symptoms for diagnosing malaria1 among patients attending a peripheral health facility in Kabale District, SW Uganda.

From: Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda

Presenting symptoms Malaria case1 (%): n = 392 Not malaria case (%): n = 1187 P- value2 Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) Positive predictive value (%) Negative predictive value (%)
Headache 332 (84.7) 962 (81.0) P = 0.009 84.7 19.0 25.7 21.1
Joint pain 287 (73.2) 947 (79.8) P = 0.009 73.2 20.2 23.3 30.4
History of fever 293 (74.7) 936 (78.9) n.s. 74.7 21.1 23.8 28.3
Loss of appetite 239 (61.0) 747 (62.9) n.s. 61.0 37.0 24.3 25.8
Vomiting 232 (59.2) 619 (52.1) P = 0.03 59.2 47.9 27.3 22.0
General weakness 216 (55.1) 648 (54.6) n.s. 55.1 45.4 25.0 24.6
Rigors 76 (19.4) 190 (16.0) n.s. 19.4 84.0 28.6 24.1
Cough 75 (19.1) 236 (19.9) n.s. 19.1 80.1 24.1 25.0
Dizziness 48 (12.2) 137 (11.5) n.s. 12.2 88.5 25.9 24.7
Abdominal pain 50 (12.8) 96 (8.1) P = 0.03 12.8 91.9 34.2 23.9
Backache 17 (4.3) 58 (4.9) n.s. 4.3 95.1 22.7 24.9
Flu-like symptoms 17 (4.3) 40 (3.4) n.s. 4.3 96.6 29.8 24.6
  1. 1Malaria case defined as: parasitaemia and axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C
  2. 2 χ2 values calculated using log likelihood, df = 1; n.s. not significant