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Table 1

From: Amodiaquine failure associated with erythrocytic glutathione in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

  Parasitized Erythrocytes Non-parasitized erythrocytes Free parasites*
  ACR Starting day Failure ACR Starting day Failure ACR Starting day Failure
   Starting day Failure day   Starting day Failure day   Starting day Failure day
GSH (nmol/mg protein) 5.612 ± 2.119a, h 11.725 ± 4.833b, h, j 5.847 ± 2.582c, j 16.324 ± 4.992a, i 21.636 ± 4.149b, i 19.093 ± 8.288c 2.416 ± 0.073 2.400 ± 0 2.400 ± 0
GR (mU/mg protein) 34.927 ± 14.777d 30.103 ± 10.171e 41.901 ± 17.110f 23.691 ± 8.145d 18.594 ± 5.442e 21.999 ± 8.903f 18.700 ± 5.867 19.711 ± 9.337 33.562 ± 14.436
γ-GCS (mU/mg protein) 20.692 ± 9.208 17.304 ± 8.478 28.141 ± 14.965g 17.444 ± 5.785 13.352 ± 6.793 13.150 ± 7.068g 10.043 ± 1.549 9.850 ± 1.501 10.5 ± 2.908
  1. *In free parasites GR and γ-GCS enzymatic activity was not established because the protein quantity found was very low and in some cases not detectable, therefore the values shown correspond to enzymatic velocity (mU/ml).
  2. Total glutathione concentration and glutathione reductase (GR) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) activities of parasitized erythrocytes non-infected erythrocytes and free parasite obtained from adequate clinical response patients (ACR) and failure therapeutic patients (FT). The values shown correspond to starting day (before ingestion AQ) and to failure day. We used the Mann-Whitney test in order to compare total glutathione and GR and γ-GCS activities in parasitized erythrocytes and non-parasitized erythrocytes on both days, and therapeutic responses groups. In addition, this test was used for to establish differences between total glutathione and enzymatic activity on starting day in parasitized erythrocytes between ACR patients and FT patients. Similarly for non-infected erythrocytes and free parasites. A matching test was applied (Wilcoxon test) to compare total glutathione and GR and γ-GCS activities in parasitized and non-infected erythrocytes and free parasites, between starting day and failure day in FT patients. P values statistically significant are shown.
  3. a, b, cTotal glutathione in parasitized erythrocytes compared with total glutathione in non-infected erythrocytes for every therapeutic response group: ACR patients p (M-W) < 0.001; FT patients on starting p (M-W) = 0.003; and FT patients on failure day p (M-W) = 0.001.
  4. d, e, fGR activity in parasitized erythrocytes compared with GR activity in non-infected erythrocytes for every therapeutic response group: ACR patients p (M-W) < 0.015; FT patients on starting p (M-W) = 0.021; and FT patients on failure day p (M-W) = 0.013.
  5. gγ-GCS activity in parasitized erythrocytes compared with γ-GCS activity in non-infected erythrocytes for every therapeutic response group: FT patients on failure day p (M-W) = 0.012.
  6. hTotal glutathione in parasitized erythrocytes of ACR patients compared with FT patients on starting day p (M-W) = 0.001.
  7. iTotal glutathione in non-parasitized erythrocytes of ACR patients compared with FT patients on starting day p (M-W) = 0.015
  8. jTotal glutathione in parasitized erythrocytes of FT patients on starting day compared with FT patients on failure day p (Wilcoxon) = 0.017