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Table 2 Effects of neem oil and corn oil formulations on pupation, larval growth period and aquatic development rate of An. gambiae s.s.

From: Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

  % Pupation Larval period (days) Growth index†
Oil Concentration (ppm) Neem Corn oil Neem Corn oil Neem Corn oil
32 1.00 c‡ 34.83 a 6.42 a 3.25 bc 0.48 d 21.38 bc
16 8.50 c 38.67 a 5.72 ab 3.43 bc 3.58 d 23.28 ab
8 22.50 b 44.67 a 4.62 abc 4.09 abc 10.22 cd 22.33 ab
4 35.00 a 40.50 a 2.87 c 3.58 bc 26.84 ab 23.87 ab
2 37.00 a 43.00 a 4.05 abc 4.03 abc 19.24 bc 21.99 b
0.5 38.17 a 44.00 a 3.73 bc 3.70 bc 21.94 b 23.80 ab
Control 44.50 a 3.50 bc 25.76 ab
  1. † % pupation/mean larval period. ‡ Numbers in rows/columns without one or more letters in common are significantly different at P < 0.05. Six concentrations were tested and replicated with 50 mosquitoes six times (n = 300) each. In some cases all larvae died (32 ppm of neem oil formulation), and it was assumed that at least one larva lived for at least as long as the experimental period (8 days)