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Table 4 Chloroquine prevalence in urines of children between two and nine years of age according to site's characteristics.

From: Antimalarial drug use in general populations of tropical Africa

Site's characteristics N* CQ+† Prevalence of CQ‡ % crudeOR 95%CI p
Country Senegal 1023 223 22 1.00    
  Burkina Faso 1007 478 47 3.69 1.49 9.16 0.005
  Cameroon 1022 561 55 5.54 2.23 13.72 0.000
Region North 1547 811 52 1.00    
  South 1505 451 30 0.31 0.15 0.66 0.002
Type of area rural 2443 900 37 1.00    
  urban 609 362 59 2.93 1.01 8.46 0.047
Prop. ‡ living in an other locality one year before the study < 5% 1424 471 33 1.00    
  >= 5% 1628 791 49 2.29 0.97 5.40 0.058
Prop. ‡ living in an other site for more than 1 month during the preceding year < 15% 1920 685 36 1.00    
  >= 15% 1132 577 51 2.24 0.92 5.45 0.077
Proportion of visitors among individuals present in the households the night before < 2% 1918 635 33 1.00    
  >= 2% 1134 627 55 3.02 1.29 7.07 0.011
Prop. ‡ had a not damaged bed-net < 30% 1826 868 48 1.00    
  >= 30% 1226 394 32 0.48 0.20 1.15 0.100
Prop. ‡ had access to stockpiles of antimalarial drugs at home < 20% 1955 605 31 1.00    
  >= 20% 1097 657 60 4.05 1.86 8.81 0.000
Average number of individuals by household < 7 834 501 60 1.00    
  7–9 1293 504 39 0.35 0.13 0.93 0.035
  >= 10 925 257 28 0.21 0.07 0.61 0.004
Socioeconomic level score in 2 classes <6 2540 914 36 1.00    
  >= 6 512 349 68 4.73 1.74 12.87 0.002
Length of the travel to join the nearest sanitary structure < 1 km 404 304 75 1.00    
  1–9.9 km 1034 425 41 0.20 0.06 0.67 0.010
  >= 10 km 1614 533 33 0.13 0.04 0.42 0.001
Length of the travel to join the pharmacy the most used < 5 km 504 340 67 1.00    
  5–9.9 km 1034 425 41 0.29 0.09 0.95 0.041
  >= 10 km 1514 497 33 0.19 0.06 0.57 0.003
Duration of the route to join the nearest tarmacked road < 1 hour 1336 640 48 1.00    
  >= 1 hour 1716 622 36 0.56 0.23 1.37 0.206
Prevalence rate of the anti-CSP antibodies among children between two and nine years of age < 20% 635 245 39 1.00    
  20–39.9% 1227 746 61 2.81 1.13 6.97 0.026
  >= 40% 1190 271 23 0.44 0.17 1.12 0.088
Prevalence rate of P. falciparum trophozoites among children between two and nine years of age < 25% 428 126 29 1.00    
  25–49% 526 351 67 6.62 1.67 26.23 0.007
  50–74% 989 407 41 1.76 0.52 5.92 0.359
  >= 75% 1109 378 34 1.27 0.38 4.21 0.693
  1. *N number of samples of urine, † CQ+ = number of samples with chloroquine in urines, ‡ Prop.: proportion of inhabitants of the site who
  2. Logistic regression model with random effect taking into account the interdependency of observations made within the same site.