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Table 5 Multivariate analysis of the presence of chloroquine in urines of children between two and nine years of age.

From: Antimalarial drug use in general populations of tropical Africa

Variables N CQ+* Prevalence of CQ † % Crude OR 95%CI p‡ Adjusted OR 95%CI p‡
Age            
   2–5 years old 1419 691 49 1.00     1.00    
   6–9 years old 1633 571 35 0.74 0.09 0.63 0.001 0.76 0.64 0.90 0.002
Fever during the preceding 3 days            
   without 2252 852 38 1.00     1.00    
   with 800 410 51 1.24 1.02 1.50 0.032 1.22 1.01 1.49 0.043
Proportion of individuals who were living in an other locality one year before the study            
   < 5% 1424 471 33 1.00     1.00    
   >= 5% 1628 791 49 2.29 0.97 5.40 0.058 2.53 1.38 4.64 0.003
Score in 2 classes representing the households' average socioeconomic level            
   < 6 2540 914 36 1.00     1.00    
   >= 6 512 349 68 4.73 1.74 12.87 0.002 2.74 1.11 6.78 0.029
Prevalence rate of the anti-CSP antibodies            
   < 20% 635 245 39 1.00     1.00    
   20–39.9% 1227 746 61 2.82 1.11 7.16 0.0289 2.47 1.13 5.41 0.023
   >= 40% 1190 271 23 0.44 0.17 1.12 0.0885 0.68 0.32 1.43 0.305
Duration of the route to join the nearest tarmacked road            
   < 1 hour 1336 640 48 1.00     1.00    
   >= 1 hour 1716 622 36 0.56 0.23 1.37 0.206 0.49 0.27 0.89 0.019
  1. *CQ+ = number of samples with chloroquine in urines, † CQ: Chloroquine, ‡ p: p-value
  2. Logistic regression model with random effect taking into account the interdependency of observations made within the same site.