Gradient maps representing genotype frequency distribution of the minor allele of TNF promoter/enhancer and FCGR2A G/A R131H SNPs across India. A, rs1799964 (-1031T>C); B, rs1800630 (-863C>A); C, rs1801274 (exon4 G>A). Dots on each map depict the 55 IGVC endogamous populations. Ho and FST value of each SNP is indicated. D, map depicting P. falciparum malaria prevalence across the country as percentage of all malaria cases. Areas where incidence is >30% are considered 'high risk'. E, distribution of TNF enhancer haplotypes for the SNPs -1031T>C, -863C>A, -308G>A, -238G>A, -76T>C across Indian populations. The linguistic lineages (TB, Tibeto-Burman; IE, Indo-European; DR, Dravidian; AA, Austro-Asiatic) of populations are indicated. Endogamous populations that contributed to patient and control samples from the endemic and non-endemic region are marked by * and #, respectively in A and E. Blue and green circles in A represent patient recruitment sites in the P. falciparum-endemic and -non-endemic region, respectively.