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Table 3 Activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles subpictus populations (n > 200 for each value)

From: Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

  Anuradhapura Kurunegala Moneragala Puttalam Trincomalee
Ac As Ac As Ac As Ac As Ac As
Est1 52 10 51 18 44 21 30 17 15 06
GST2 28 19 13 26 10 43 36 45 60 09
MO3 24 38 38 28 56 27 27 20 72 86
MCE4 + + - ++ +++ +++ + + +++ +++
  1. Ac = An. culicifacies
  2. As = An. subpictus
  3. 1. % population having esterase specific activity above 0.25 μmol/mg/min
  4. 2. % population having glutathione S-transferase specific activity above 0.40 μmol/mg/min
  5. 3. % population having monooxygenase levels above 0.35 equivalent units of cytochrome P450
  6. 4. malathion carboxylesterase activity as measured by malathion metabolism studies (see text for details)
  7. - no activity ++ – moderate +++ – high