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Table 8 Insecticide cross resistance spectra and prevalence of resistance mechanisms in different An. subpictus populations.

From: Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

  DDT Pro Mal Fen λ-cy Per Del Cyp Cyf Eto CE GST Mono aAChE MCE
Anuradhapura RR SS RR RS RS RR RS SS SS RR + + + + ++
Kurunegala RR RS RR RS RS RS RS SS SS RS + + + ++ +++
Moneragala RR SS RR RR SS RS RS SS SS RS + ++ + ++ +++
Puttalam RR RS RR RR RS RS SS SS SS RS + ++ + ++ +++
Trincomalee RR RS RR RR SS RR RS SS SS SS + ++ ++ +++ +++
  1. SS = susceptible (< 10 R)
  2. RS = intermediate (10–50% R)
  3. RR = resistant (> .50% R) (According to Herath, 1997)
  4. Pro = propoxur
  5. Mal = malathion
  6. Fen = fenitrothion
  7. λ-cy = λ-cyhalothrin
  8. Del = deltamethrin
  9. Per = permethrin
  10. Cyp = cypermethrin
  11. Cyf = cyfluthrin
  12. Eto = etofenprox
  13. CE = carboxylesterase
  14. GST = glutathione S-transferase
  15. Mono = monooxygenase
  16. MCE = malathion carboxylesterase
  17. aAChE = altered acetylcholinesterase
  18. + = mechanism present at low level, ++ = mechanism present at moderate level, +++ = mechanism present at high level - = absence of mechanism