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Table 1 kdr-w allelic frequency in An. gambiae M forms by site and year.

From: Evidence of increasing Leu-Phe knockdown resistance mutation in Anopheles gambiae from Niger following a nationwide long-lasting insecticide-treated nets implementation

  2005 2006 2007 overall
Sites n kdr freq (%) n kdr freq (%) n kdr freq (%) n kdr freq (%)
   [95% CI]   [95% CI]   [95% CI]   [95% CI]
Firgoune 47 0.00 17 0.00 29 10.34 93 3.23
   [0.0–3.8]   [0.0–10.3]   [3.9–21.2]   [1.2–6.9]
Garey 54 0.00 35 0.00 -   89 0.00
   [0.0–3.4]   [0.0–5.1]     [0.0–2.1]
Banizoumbou 55 0.00 52 2.88 26 7.69 133 2.63
   [0.0–3.3]   [0.6–8.2]   [2.1–18.5]   [1.1–5.3]
Zindarou 49 1.02 71 0.70 65 4.62 185 2.16
   [0.0–5.6]   [0.0–3.9]   [1.7–9.8]   [0.9–4.2]
Maichilmi 77 0.00 10 5.00 -   87 0.57
   [0.0–2.4]   [0.1–24.9]     [0.0–3.2]
Maikogo 86 0.58 19 7.89 34 8.82 139 3.60
   [0.0–3.2]   [1.7–21.4]   [3.3–18.2]   [1.7–6.5]
Fararatt 71 0.70 53 0.94 19 7.89 143 1.75
   [0.0–3.9]   [0.0–5.1]   [1.7–21.4]   [0.6–4.0]
Bermo 42 0.00 4 0.00 -   46 0.00
   [0.0–4.3]   [0.0–36.9]     [0.0–3.9]
Tchake 32 1.56 3 0.00 -   35 1.43
   [0.0–8.4]   [0.0–45.9]     [0.0–7.7]
Falenko 13 0.00 -   -   13 0.00
   [0.0–13.2]       [0.0–13.2]
Damagaram 6 8.33 5 10.00 -   11 9.09
   [0.2–38.5]   [0.3–44.5]     [1.1–29.2]
Guidimouni 3 0.00 1 50.00 4 87.50 8 50.00
   [0.0–15.9]   [1.3–98.7]   [47.3–99.7]   [24.6–75.3]
Total 537 0.47 272 2.02 177 9.04 986 2.43
   [0.2–1.1]   [1.0–3.6]   [6.3–12.5]   [1.8–3.2]
  1. Six out of 12 villages were analysed in 2007. The study sites are presented following their longitudinal position, from West to East. Two sites (Goudoumaria and Bosso) where too few An. gambiae s.s. were found are not shown. n: specimens sample size. Kdr freq: kdr-w allelic frequency (percentage). 95% CI: 95% Confidence Interval